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Natural Disasters

List of natural disasters by death toll

Thanks to Wikipedia

List of natural disasters by death toll. (2017, March 18). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 12:26, March 18th, 2017, from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_natural_disasters_by_death_toll

A natural disaster is a sudden event that causes widespread destruction, lots of collateral damage or loss of life, brought about by forces other than the acts of human beings. A natural disaster might be caused by earthquakes, flooding, volcanic eruption, landslide, hurricanes etc. In order to be classified as a disaster, it will have profound environmental effect and/or human loss and frequently incurs financial loss.

Ten worst natural disasters

Rank Death toll (estimate) Event Location Date
1 1,000,000–4,000,000*[1] 1931 China floods China July 1931
2 900,000–2,000,000[2] 1887 Yellow River flood China September 1887
3 830,000[3] 1556 Shaanxi earthquake China January 23, 1556
4 450,000 (242,000–655,000) 1976 Tangshan earthquake China July 28, 1976
5 375,000 (250,000–500,000)[1] 1970 Bhola cyclone East Pakistan (now Bangladesh) November 13, 1970
6 300,000[4] 1839 India cyclone India November 26, 1839
7 300,000[5] 1737 Calcutta cyclone India October 7, 1737
8 280,000 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami Indian Ocean December 26, 2004
9 273,400[6] 1920 Haiyuan earthquake China December 16, 1920
10 250,000–300,000[7] 526 Antioch earthquake Byzantine Empire (now Turkey) May 526

* Estimate by Nova’s sources are close to 4 million and yet Encarta’s sources report as few as 1 million. Expert estimates report wide variance.

The list does not include several volcanic eruptions with uncertain death tolls resulting from collateral effects (crop failures, etc.), though these may have numbered in the millions; see List of volcanic eruptions by death toll.

The list does not include the man-made 1938 Yellow River flood, caused entirely by a deliberate man-made act (an act of war, destroying dikes).

An alternative listing is given by Peter Hough in his 2008 book Global Security.[8]

Ten deadliest natural disasters since 1900

Rank Death toll (estimate) Event* Location Date
1. 1,000,000–4,000,000 1931 China floods China July 1931
2. 450,000 (242,000–655,000) 1976 Tangshan earthquake China July 28, 1976
3. 375,000 (250,000–500,000) 1970 Bhola cyclone East Pakistan (now Bangladesh) November 1970
4. 280,000 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami Indian Ocean December 26, 2004
5. 273,400 1920 Haiyuan earthquake China December 16, 1920
6. 229,000 Typhoon Nina—contributed to Banqiao Dam failure China August 7, 1975
7. 160,000[9] 2010 Haiti earthquake Haiti January 12, 2010
8. 145,000 1935 Yangtze river flood China 1935
9. 143,000 1923 Great Kanto earthquake Japan September 1, 1923
10. 138,866 1991 Bangladesh cyclone Bangladesh April 1991

This list does not include industrial or technological accidents, epidemics, or the 1938 Yellow River flood.

Lists of natural disasters by cause

Ten deadliest avalanches

Main articles: Avalanches and List of avalanches
Rank Death toll (estimate) Event Location Date
1. 20,000 1970 Huascarán avalanche; triggered by the 1970 Ancash earthquake[10] Peru 1970
2. 10,000 Tyrolean Alps Avalanche[11][12] Italy 1916
3. 4,000 1962 Huascarán avalanche[10] Peru 1962
4. 310 2015 Afghanistan avalanches Afghanistan 2015
5. 265 Winter of Terror AustriaSwitzerland 1951
6. 201 2012 Afghanistan avalanches Afghanistan 2012
7. 172 2010 Salang avalanches Afghanistan 2010
8. 140 2012 Siachen Glacier avalanche Pakistan 2012
9. 125 Kolka-Karmadon rock ice slide Russia 2002
10. 102 2010 Kohistan avalanche Pakistan 2010

Ten deadliest tropical cyclones

Rank Death toll Event Location Date
1. 375,000 (250,000–500,000) 1970 Bhola cyclone East Pakistan (now Bangladesh) November 13, 1970
2. 300,000[4] 1839 India Cyclone India November 25, 1839
2. 300,000[5] 1737 Calcutta cyclone India October 7, 1737
4. 229,000 Super Typhoon Nina—contributed to Banqiao Dam failure China August 7, 1975
5. 200,000[13] Great Backerganj Cyclone of 1876 India (now Bangladesh) October 30, 1876
6. 150,000 (30,000 to 300,000)[14] 1881 Haiphong Typhoon Vietnam October 8, 1881
7. 138,866 1991 Bangladesh cyclone Bangladesh April 29, 1991
8. 138,366 Cyclone Nargis Myanmar May 2, 2008
9. 100,000[15] 1882 Bombay cyclone India 1882
10. 80,000[16] 1874 Bengal cyclone India October 1874

52 deadliest earthquakes

Rank Death toll (estimate) Event Location Date
1. 830,000 1556 Shaanxi earthquake China January 23, 1556
2. 650,000–779,000[17][18][19] 1976 Tangshan earthquake China July 28, 1976
3. 280,000 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake Indonesia December 26, 2004
4. 273,400[6] 1920 Haiyuan earthquake China December 16, 1920
5. 250,000–300,000[7] 526 Antioch earthquake Byzantine Empire (now Turkey) May 526
6. 260,000[20] 115 Antioch earthquake Roman Empire (now Turkey) December 13, 115
7. 230,000 1138 Aleppo earthquake Zengid dynasty (now Syria) October 11, 1138
8. 200,000[21] 1303 Hongdong earthquake Mongol Empire (now China) September 17, 1303
9. 200,000 856 Damghan earthquake Abbasid Caliphate (now Iran) December 22, 856
10. 200,000[22] 1780 Tabriz earthquake Iran January 8, 1780
11. 170,000[23] 896 Udaipur earthquake India 896
12. 160,000[9] 2010 Haiti earthquake Haiti January 12, 2010
13. 150,000 893 Ardabil earthquake Abbasid Caliphate (now Iran) March 23, 893
14. 142,807[24][25] 1923 Great Kanto earthquake Japan September 1, 1923
15. 130,000[26] 533 Aleppo earthquake Byzantine Empire (now Syria) November 29, 533
16. 123,000[1] 1908 Messina earthquake Italy December 28, 1908
17. 110,000 1948 Ashgabat earthquake Turkmen SSR, Soviet Union (now Turkmenistan) October 5, 1948
18. 100,000 1290 Chihli earthquake Mongol Empire (now China) September 27, 1290
19. 100,000[27] 2005 Kashmir earthquake Pakistan (Azad Kashmir) October 8, 2005
20. 87,587[28][29] 2008 Sichuan earthquake China May 12, 2008
21. 80,000[30] 1721 Tabriz earthquake Iran April 26, 1721
22. 80,000[31] 458 Antioch earthquake Byzantine Empire (now Turkey) September 458
23. 80,000 1667 Shamakhi earthquake Safavid dynasty (now Azerbaijan) November 1667
24. 80,000 1854 Great Nankaidō earthquake Japan November 1854
25. 80,000[32][33] 1169 Aleppo earthquake Zengid dynasty (now Syria) 1169
26. 77,000 1727 Tabriz earthquake Iran November 18, 1727
27. 73,000[34] 1718 Gansu earthquake Qing Empire (now China) June 19, 1718
28. 70,000 1970 Ancash earthquake Peru May 31, 1970[35]
29. 70,000[36] 1033 Ramala earthquake Fatimid Caliphate (now West Bank) December 10, 1033
30. 70,000[37] 847 Damascus earthquake Abbasid Caliphate (now Syria) 847
31. 70,000[38] 1868 Ecuador earthquakes Ecuador August 15, 1868 and August 16, 1868
32. 60,000[39] 587 Antioch earthquake Byzantine Empire (now Turkey) September 30, 587
33. 60,000[40] 1101 Khorasan earthquake Great Seljuq Empire (now Iran) 1101
34. 60,000 1268 Cilicia earthquake Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia (now Turkey) 1268
35. 60,000 1693 Sicily earthquake Kingdom of Sicily (now Italy) January 11, 1693
36. 60,000 1935 Quetta earthquake India (now part of Pakistan) May 31, 1935
37. 50,000[41] 844 Damascus earthquake Abbasid Caliphate (now Syria) September 18, 844
38. 50,000[42] 1042 Tabriz earthquake Abbasid Caliphate (now Iran) November 4, 1042
39. 50,000 1783 Calabrian earthquakes Kingdom of Naples (now Italy) 1783
40. 50,000 1990 Manjil–Rudbar earthquake Iran June 21, 1990
41. 40,000–50,000[43] 1755 Lisbon earthquake Portugal November 1, 1755
42. 45,000[44] 850 Iran earthquake Abbasid Caliphate (now Iran) July 15, 850
43. 45,000[45] 856 Corinth earthquake Byzantine Empire (now Greece) November 856
44. 45,000[46][47] 856 Tunisia earthquake Abbasid Caliphate (now Tunisia) December 3, 856
45. 42,571[48] 1668 Shandong earthquake Qing Empire (now China) July 25, 1668
46. 40,900 1927 Gulang earthquake Gansu, China May 22, 1927
47. 40,000[49] 342 Antioch earthquake Roman Empire (now Turkey) 342
48. 40,000[50] 662 Damghan earthquake Umayyad Caliphate (now Iran) April 26, 662
49. 40,000[51] 1455 Naples earthquake Crown of Aragon (now Italy) December 5, 1455
50. 40,000[52] 1754 Cairo earthquake Ottoman Empire (now Egypt) September 2, 1754
51. 40,000[53] 1755 Tabriz earthquake Iran June 7, 1755
52. 40,000 1797 Riobamba earthquake Spanish Empire (now Ecuador) February 4, 1797

20 deadliest famines

Note: Some of these famines may be caused or partially caused by humans.

Rank Death toll Event Location Date
1. 15,000,000–43,000,000 Great Chinese Famine China 1958–1961
2. 25,000,000[citation needed] Chinese Famine of 1907 China 1907
3. 13,000,000[54] Northern Chinese Famine of 1876–1879 China 1876–1879
4. 11,000,000 Doji bara famine or Skull famine India 1789–1792
5. 10,000,000 Bengal famine of 1770, incl. Bihar & Orissa India 1769–1771
6. 6,000,000+ Indian Famine British India 1896–1902
7. 7,500,000 Great European Famine Europe (all) 1315–1317
8. 7,000,000–10,000,000 Soviet famine of 1932–1933 (Holodomor in Ukraine) Soviet Union 1932–1934
9. 5,250,000 Indian Great Famine of 1876–78 India 1876–1878
10. 5,000,000 Chinese Famine of 1936 China 1936
11. 5,000,000 Russian famine of 1921 Russia, Ukraine 1921–1922
12. 3,000,000 Chinese famine of 1928–1930 China 1928–1930
13. 2,000,000–3,000,000 Chinese Drought 1941 China 1942-1943
14. 2,000,000 Russian famine of 1601–1603 Russia (Muscovy) 1601–1603
15. 2,000,000 Deccan Famine of 1630–32 India 1630–1632
16. 2,000,000 Upper Doab famine of 1860–61 India 1860–1861
17. 2,000,000 French Famine France 1693–1694
18. 2,000,000 Great Persian Famine of 1870–71 Persia 1870-1871
19. 1,500,000–7,000,000 Bengal Famine of 1943 India 1943
20. 1,500,000 Great Irish Famine Ireland 1846–1849

Ten deadliest floods / landslides

Note: Some of these floods and landslides may be partially caused by humans – for example, by failure of dams, levees, seawalls or retaining walls.

Rank Death toll Event Location Date
1. 1,000,000–4,000,000[55] 1931 China floods China 1931
2. 900,000–2,000,000 1887 Yellow River (Huang He) flood China 1887
3. 229,000[56] Failure of 62 dams, the largest of which was Banqiao Dam, result of Typhoon Nina. China 1975
4. 145,000 1935 Yangtze river flood China 1935
5. more than 100,000 St. Felix’s Flood, storm surge Netherlands 1530
6. 100,000 Hanoi and Red River Delta flood North Vietnam 1971
7. up to 100,000[citation needed] 1911 Yangtze River flood China 1911
8. 50,000–80,000 St. Lucia’s flood, storm surge Netherlands 1287
9. 60,000 North Sea flood, storm surge Netherlands 1212
10. 36,000 St. Marcellus flood, storm surge Netherlands 1219

The list does not include the man-made 1938 Yellow River flood caused entirely by a deliberate man-made act (an act of war, destroying dikes).

Contractible diseases

The following text needs to be harmonized with text in List of epidemics.
Death Toll ? Event ? Location ? Date ?
approx. 300,000,000 Smallpox Worldwide 01901-01-0120th century alone[8]
approx. 100,000,000 Bubonic Plague: Black Death Asia, Europe, Africa 01300-01-011300s–1720s
= 200,000,000 Measles Worldwide 01851-01-01last 150 years[9]
80,000,000–250,000,000 Malaria Worldwide 01900-01-0120th century – present[update]
50,000,000–100,000,000 Spanish Flu Worldwide 01918-01-011918–1919[10]
40,000,000–100,000,000 Tuberculosis Worldwide 01900-01-0120th century – present[update][9]
approx. 40,000,000 Bubonic Plague: Plague of Justinian Asia, Europe, Africa 00540-01-01540–590
25,250,000 AIDS Worldwide 01981-01-011981–present (as of 2007)
= 12,000,000 Bubonic Plague: Third Pandemic Worldwide 01850-01-011850s–1950s
5,000,000 Antonine Plague Roman Empire 00165-01-01165–180
4,000,000 Asian Flu pandemic Worldwide 01957-01-011957
750,000 Hong Kong Flu pandemic Worldwide 01968-01-011968
775 Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) Mostly East Asia, few cases in Europe, Canada and United States 02002-01-012002–2003
677 West Nile Virus outbreak North America 01999-01-011999–2004
256 H5N1 strain of Bird Flu (mainly in Asia, few in Africa and Middle East) 02003-01-012003–present (as of 2007)

Famines

The following text needs to be harmonized with text in List of famines.
Please Note: Some of these famines may be partially or completely caused by humans.
Death Toll ? Event ? Location ? Date ?
4,900,000–43,000,000 Great Chinese Famine China 1958–1961
24,000,000 Chinese Famine of 1907 China 1907
19,000,000 Indian Famine India 1896–1902
15,000,000 Bengal famine of 1770, incl. Bihar & Orissa India 1769–1771
13,000,000 Northern Chinese Famine China 1876–1879
10,000,000 Southern and Central Indian Famine India 1876–1879
7,500,000 Great European Famine Europe (all) 1315–1317
5,000,000 Chinese Famine of 1936 China 1936
5,000,000 Soviet famine of 1932–1933 Soviet Union 1932–1934
5,000,000 Russian famine of 1921 Russia, Ukraine 1921–1922
4,000,000 Bengal famine of 1943 India 1943
3,000,000 Chinese Drought 1941 China 1941
3,000,000 Chinese Famine of 1928–1930 China 1928–1930
2,000,000 Russian famine of 1601–1603 Russia (Muscovy) 1601–1603
1,000,000-1,500,000 Great Irish Famine Ireland (part of UK) 1846–1849
2,000,000 Vietnamese War Famine Vietnam 1943–1945
1,500,000–3,000,000 Bengal Famine of 1943 India 1943
1,200,000 North Korean famine North Korea 1996–1998
1,000,000 1984–1985 famine in Ethiopia Ethiopia 1984
1,000,000 Horn of Africa famine Ethiopia, Sudan, Somalia 1888
26,000-1,000,000 Bangladesh famine of 1974—Official records claim 26,000. However, various sources claim about 1,000,000. Bangladesh 1974
150,000 Finnish famine of 1866–1868 Finland 1866–1868
18,000 Dutch famine of 1944 The Netherlands 1944

Footnotes

See also

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Updated: March 18, 2017 — 12:56 pm

The Author

Rich Fleetwood

Rich is the founder of SurvivalRing, now in it's 20th year, author of multimedia CDs and DVDs, loves the outdoors, his family, his geeky skill-set, and lives in rural Missouri, just a few miles from the Big Muddy. Always ready to help others, he shares what he learns on multiple blogs, social sites, and more. With a background in preparedness and survival skills, training with county, state, and national organizations, and skills in all areas of media and on air experience in live radio and television, Rich is always thinking about the "big picture", when it comes to helping individuals and families prepare for life's little surprises. Since 1997, he has provided guidance, authentic government survival history, and commentary on why we all need to get ready for that fateful day in the future, when we have to get our hands dirty and step in to save the day. He is an award winning videographer (2005 Telly Award), has received state and national scholarly recognition (2006 New Century Scholar and All USA Academic Team), and is a natural with computers, technology, gadgets, small furry mammals, and anything on wheels. Rich likes making friends, solving problems, and creating solutions to everyday issues. He doesn't mind mixing things up, when there is a teaching moment ready to happen. As a constitutional conservative, he's staying quite busy these days. The SurvivalRing Radio Show at www.survivalringradio.com will be coming back SOON!

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