List of wars and disasters by death toll
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List of wars and disasters by death toll. (2009, June 25). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 01:27, June 25, 2009, from http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=List_
This is a list of wars and human-made disasters by death toll. It covers the Lowest Estimate of death as well as the Highest Estimate, the name of the event, the location, and the start and end of each war. Some events overlap categories.
Wars and armed conflicts
Where only one estimate is available, it appears in both the low and high estimates. This is a sortable table. Click on the column sort buttons to sort results numerically or alphabetically.
|Lowest Estimate||Highest Estimate||Event||Location||From||To||See also|
|&0000000040000000.00000040,000,000||72,000,000||World War II||Worldwide||1939||1945||World War II casualties and Sino-Japanese War|
|&0000000033000000.00000033,000,000||&0000000036000000.00000036,000,000||An Shi Rebellion||China||756||763||Medieval warfare|
|&0000000030000000.00000030,000,000||60,000,000||Mongol Conquests||Asia, Europe, Middle East||1207||1472||Mongol invasions and Tatar invasions|
|&0000000025000000.00000025,000,000||&0000000025000000.00000025,000,000||Manchu conquest of the Ming Dynasty||China||1616||1662||Qing Dynasty|
|&0000000020000000.00000020,000,000||&0000000030000000.00000030,000,000+||Taiping Rebellion||China||1851||1864||Dungan revolt|
|&0000000015000000.00000015,000,000||&0000000025000000.00000025,000,000||World War I (High estimate includes Spanish flu deaths)||Worldwide||1914||1918||World War I casualties|
|&0000000010000000.00000010,000,000||&0000000020000000.00000020,000,000||Conquests of Timur||Middle East, India, Asia, Russia||1369||1405||List of wars in the Muslim world|
|&0000000008000000.0000008,000,000||&0000000012000000.00000012,000,000||Muslim Rebellion||China||1855||1877||Panthay Rebellion|
|&0000000005000000.0000005,000,000||&0000000009000000.0000009,000,000||Russian Civil War||Russia||1917||1921||List of civil wars|
|&0000000003800000.0000003,800,000||&0000000005400000.0000005,400,000||Second Congo War||Democratic Republic of the Congo||1998||2003||First Congo War|
|&0000000003500000.0000003,500,000||&0000000006500000.0000006,500,000||Napoleonic Wars||Europe, Atlantic, Pacific and Indian Ocean||1804||1815||Napoleonic Wars casualties|
|&0000000003000000.0000003,000,000||&0000000011500000.00000011,500,000||Thirty Years’ War||Holy Roman Empire||1618||1648|
|&0000000003000000.0000003,000,000||&0000000007000000.0000007,000,000||Yellow Turban Rebellion||China||184||205||Part of Three Kingdoms War|
|&0000000002500000.0000002,500,000||&0000000003500000.0000003,500,000||Korean War||Korean Peninsula||1950||1953||Cold War|
|&0000000002495000.0000002,495,000||&0000000005020000.0000005,020,000||Vietnam War||South East Asia||1959||1975||Indochina War|
|&0000000002000000.0000002,000,000||&0000000004000000.0000004,000,000||French Wars of Religion||France||1562||1598||Religious war|
|&0000000001500000.0000001,500,000||&0000000002000000.0000002,000,000||Afghan Civil War||Afghanistan||1979||present|
Crimes against humanity
A list of court cases where persons known or unknown have been found guilty of one or more crimes against humanity which caused a substantial loss of life.
|Lowest Estimate||Highest Estimate||Case||Perpetrators||Date of crime||Location||Notes|
|~8,000||~8,000||ICTY, Prosecutor, Vidoje Blagojevic & Dragan Jokic||Dragan Jokic||1995||Bosnia||Dragan Jokic was found guilty, of extermination as a crime against humanity, for his part in supporting the Srebenica massacre, and on appeal was found to have been “integrally involved in the murder operation, spanning multiple mass killing sites”|
Genocides and alleged genocides
The CPPCG defines genocide in part as “acts committed with intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnical, racial or religious group”.
Determining what historical events constitute a genocide and which are merely criminal or inhuman behavior is not a clear-cut matter. In nearly every case where accusations of genocide have circulated, partisans of various sides have fiercely disputed the interpretation and details of the event, often to the point of promoting wildly different versions of the facts. An accusation of genocide, therefore, will almost always be controversial.
The following list of genocides and alleged genocides should be understood in this context and not necessarily regarded as the final word on the events in question.
|Lowest Estimate||Highest Estimate||Event||Location||From||To||Notes|
|10,000,000[||20,000,000||European colonization of the Americas||The Americas||1492||1900||From when Christopher Columbus set foot onto American land, to the various colonization from empires abroad, to the Battle at Wounded Knee, it is estimated between 10 and 20 million native Americans were killed. Early on, the most common amount of deaths came from disease that carried from Europe hitting the less immune natives, this weakness was even used as a method of biological warfare. As colonization continued starvation and disease caused by displacement became prevalent. Towards the end, native Americans faced heavily armed soldiers in battle over land disputes and suffered terrible losses. However, even with all this killing, it was justified by the Manifest Destiny.|
|5,830,000||11,000,000||Genocides of Nazi Germany||Europe||1941||1945||With around 6 million Jews murdered, many scholars define the Holocaust as a genocide of European Jewry alone. Broader definitions include up to 1,500,000 Romani because, like the European Jewry, the Roma were also targeted for total annihilation due to their race. A broader definition includes political and religious dissenters, 200,000 handicapped, 2 to 3 million Soviet POWs, 5,000 Jehovah’s Witnesses, and 15,000 homosexuals, bringing the death toll to around 9 million. The number rises to 11 million if the deaths of 2 million ethnic Poles are included. See Holocaust, Consequences of German Nazism|
|2,500,000||10,000,000||Holodomor, famine, political repression||Ukrainian SSR||1932||1933||Famine in Ukraine caused by the government of Joseph Stalin, a part of Soviet famine of 1932-1933. Holodomor is claimed by contemporary Ukrainian government to be a genocide of the Ukrainian nation.|
|1,700,000||3,000,000||Famine, political repression||Cambodia||1975||1979||As of September 2007[update], no one has been found guilty of participating in this genocide, but on 19 September 2007 Nuon Chea, second in command of the Khmer Rouge and its most senior surviving member, was charged with war crimes and crimes against humanity. He will face Cambodian and United Nations appointed foreign judges at the special genocide tribunal.|
|26,000 ||3,000,000||1971 Bangladesh atrocities||East Pakistan (now Bangladesh)||1971||1971||Atrocities in East Pakistan by the Pakistani military, leading to the Bangladesh Liberation War and Indo-Pakistani War of 1971, are widely regarded as a genocide against Bengali people, but to date no one has yet been indicted for such a crime.|
|800,000||3,000,000||Rwandan genocide||Rwanda||1994||1994||Hutu killed unarmed men, women and children. Some perpetrators of the genocide have been found guilty by the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda, but most have not been charged due to no witness accounts.|
|400,000 ||655,000||Ustashe massacres of Serbs, Jews, Roma||Balkans||1941||1945||No academic consensus if this was persecution or genocide during period of Independent State of Croatia|
|100,000||300,000||Nanking Massacre||Nanking||1937||1938||The Nanking Massacre, commonly known as the Rape of Nanking, was an infamous genocidal war crime committed by the Japanese military in Nanjing, then capital of the Republic of China, after it fell to the Imperial Japanese Army on 13 December 1937.|
|225,000||650,000||Depopulation of Australian aborigines||Australia||1788||1888||No academic consensus that this was a genocide, see Australian genocide debate|
|200,000||400,000||Darfur conflict||Sudan||Early 2003||present||See International response to the Darfur conflict|
|130,000]||200,000||Massacres of Mayan Indians||Guatemala||1962||1996||Genocide according to the Historical Clarification Commission.|
|117,000||500,000||Revolt in the Vendée||France||1793||1796||Described as genocide by some historians. See also French Revolution|
|150,000||300,000||Political repression of East Timorese||East Timor||1975||1990s||Commonly referred to as genocide by media, scholars.|
|100,000||400,000||Political repression of West Papuans||Indonesia||1961||present||Genocide according to some sources, see Genocide in West Papua|
|100,000||200,000||Al-Anfal Campaign||Iraq||1986||1989||Ba’athist Iraq destroys over 2,000 villages and commits genocide on their Kurdish population.|
|50,000||100,000||Massacres of Hutus||Burundi||1972||1972||Tutsi government massacres of Hutu, see Burundi genocide|
|50,000||50,000||Massacres of Tutsis||Burundi||1993||1993||Hutu government massacres of Tutsi, see Burundi genocide|
|40,000||100,000||Herero and Namaqua genocide||Namibia||1904||1908||Generally accepted. See also Imperial Germany|
|~8,000||~8,000||Srebenica massacre||Srebenica||1995||1995||A genocidal massacre according to the ICTY. See also Bosnia war.|
Individual extermination camps
- 1,500,000 – Auschwitz extermination camp (by Nazi-Germany, located in Oswiecim, Poland, 1940-1945)
- 1,000,000 – Treblinka extermination camp, (by Nazi Germany, located in Treblinka, Poland, 1942-1943)
- 53,000 -840,000 – Jasenovac extermination camp – (by NDH Ustaše Nazi regime in Croatia.)
- 480,000-600,000 – Belzec extermination camp, (by Nazi Germany, located in Belzec Poland, 1942-1943)
- 350,000 – Majdanek extermination camp, (by Nazi Germany, located in Lublin Poland, 1942-1944)
- 300,000 – Chelmno extermination camp, (by Nazi Germany, located in Chelmno Poland, 1941-1943)
- 260,000 – Sobibór extermination camp, (by Nazi Germany, located in Sobibor Poland, 1942-1943)
- 55,000 – Neuengamme concentration camp, (by Nazi Germany, located by Hamburg, Germany, 1938-1945)
This section includes famines that according to some scholars were caused or exacerbated by the policies of the ruling regime.
|Lowest Estimate||Highest Estimate||Event||Location||From||To||Notes|
|20,000,000||43,000,000||Great Leap Forward famine under the Chinese Communist Party led by Mao Zedong||People’s Republic of China||1959||1962|
|6,000,000||10,000,000||Famine in the Soviet Union, under the leadership of Joseph Stalin, including Holodomor||Soviet Union||1932||1933||As of November 2006[update], the Ukraine government was trying to get this mass starvation recognised by the United Nations as an act of genocide, with Russian government and many members of the Ukrainian parliament opposing such a move.|
|4,000,000||4,000,000||Bengal famine in British-ruled India||India||1943||1943|
|1,000,000||3,000,000||Iraqi famine in Iraq, UN economic sanctions||Iraq||1990||2003|
|500,000||2,000,000||Great Irish Famine||United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland||1846||1849|||
Human sacrifice and ritual suicide
|Lowest Estimate||Highest Estimate||Description||Group||Location||From||To||Notes|
|300,000||unknown||Human sacrifice||Aztecs||Mexico||14th century||1521||Human sacrifice in Aztec culture|
|13,000||13,000||Human sacrifice||Shang dynasty||China||BC1300||BC1050||Last 250 years of rule|
|3,912||3,912||Kamikaze suicide pilots, see note ||Imperial Japanese air forces||Pacific theatre||1944||1945|
|7,941||7,941||Ritual suicides||Sati||Bengal, India||1815||1828|
|913||913||Jonestown Revolutionary Suicide||Followers of The Peoples Temple cult||Jonestown||November 18 1978||November 19 1978||The Event was the largest loss of American civilian life until the September 11th 2001 attacks.|
Other lists organized by death toll
- List of ongoing conflicts and wars
- List of natural disasters by death toll
- List of battles and other violent events by death toll
- List of accidents and disasters by death toll
- List of United Kingdom disasters by death toll
- Most prolific murderers by number of victims
Other lists with similar topics
- List of wars | List of battles | List of invasions
- List of massacres | List of terrorist incidents | List of riots
- List of disasters | List of historic fires | List of famines
- List of earthquakes | List of notable tropical cyclones
- List of rail accidents:
Topics dealing with similar themes
- Mass murder | Genocide | Democide
- Famine | Infectious diseases
- Genocide in history
- Most lethal battles in world history
- United States casualties of war
- Casualties of the Iraq War
- ^ Wallinsky, David: David Wallechinsky’s Twentieth Century : History With the Boring Parts Left Out, Little Brown & Co., 1996, ISBN 0316920568, ISBN 978-0316920568 – cited by White
- ^ Brzezinski, Zbigniew: Out of Control: Global Turmoil on the Eve of the Twenty-first Century, Prentice Hall & IBD, 1994, ASIN B000O8PVJI – cited by White
- ^ BBC – History – Nuclear Power: The End of the War Against Japan
- ^ Sorokin, Pitirim: The Sociology of Revolution, New York, H. Fertig, 1967, OCLC 325197 – cited by White
- ^ “Death toll figures of recorded wars in human history”. http://users.erols.com/mwhite28/warstat0.htm.
- ^ Mongol Conquests
- ^ The world’s worst massacres Whole Earth Review
- ^ McFarlane, Alan: The Savage Wars of Peace: England, Japan and the Malthusian Trap, Blackwell 2003, ISBN 0631181172, ISBN 978-0631181170 – cited by White
- ^ Taiping Rebellion – Britannica Concise
- ^ “Emergence Of Modern China: II. The Taiping Rebellion, 1851-64”. http://www-chaos.umd.edu/history/modern2.html#taiping.
- ^ 1918 Influenza: the Mother of All Pandemics, CDC
- ^ a b Timur Lenk (1369-1405)
- ^ Matthew’s White’s website (a compilation of scholarly estimates) –Miscellaneous Oriental Atrocities
- ^ Russian Civil War
- ^ Inside Congo, An Unspeakable Toll
- ^ [http://www.alertnet.org/thenews/newsdesk/L22802012.htm “Congo war-driven crisis kills 45,000 a month-study” – Reuters, 22 Jan 2008.
- ^ The Thirty Years War (1618-48)
- ^ Cease-fire agreement marks the end of the Korean War on 27 July 1953.
- ^ Huguenot Religious Wars, Catholic vs. Huguenot (1562-1598)
- ^ Shaka: Zulu Chieftain
- ^ Fueling Aghanistan’s War
- ^ Afghanistan’s Endless War
- ^ Summary of Appels of Judgement for Vidoje Blagojevic and Dragan Jokic UN Pres report, 9 May 2007
- ^ International Justice Tribune – Lettre d’information
- ^ The Holocaust
- ^ ,
- ^ Ukraine remembers famine horror. BBC News. November 24, 2007.
- ^ Staff, Senior Khmer Rouge leader charged, BBC 19 September 2007
- ^ a b While the official Pakistani government report estimated that the Pakistani army was responsible for 26,000 killings in total, other sources have proposed various estimates ranging between 200,000 and 3 million. Indian Professor Sarmila Bose recently expressed the view that a truly impartial study has never been done, while Bangladeshi ambassador Shamsher M. Chowdhury has suggested that a joint Pakistan-Bangladeshi commission be formed to properly investigate the event.
Chowdury, Bose comments – Dawn Newspapers Online.
Hamoodur Rahman Commission Report, chapter 2, paragraph 33 (official 1974 Pakistani report).
Death Tolls for the Major Wars and Atrocities of the 20th Century: Bangladesh – Matthew White’s website
Virtual Bangladesh: History: The Bangali Genocide, 1971
- ^ Jasenovac
- ^ Twentieth Century Atlas – Death Tolls
- ^ The Statistics of Frontier Conflict
- ^ Smallpox Through History
- ^ Debate over Darfur death toll intensifies
- ^ Press conference by members of the Guatemala Historical Clarification Commission, United Nations website, 1 March 1999
- ^ Staff. Guatemala ‘genocide’ probe blames state. BBC. 25 February 1999. Retrieved from http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/americas/286402.stm.
- ^ a b
Three State and Counterrevolution in France – Charles Tilly.
Vive la Contre-Revolution! – New York Times, 11 October 2007.
A French Genocide: The Vendée – book review by Peter McPhee of Melbourne University, H-France Review Vol. 4 (March 2004), No. 26
- ^ David McDowall, A Modern History of the Kurds, 504 pp., I.B. Tauris, 2004, ISBN 1850434166, pp. 359
- ^ William Ochsenwald & Sydney N. Fisher, The Middle East: A History, 768 pp., McGraw Hill, 2004, ISBN 0072442336, pg 659
- ^ a b Power, Samantha,A Problem From Hell: America and the Age of Genocide ISBN 0-06-054164-4 pp.82-4
- ^ While the ICJ found that “genocidal acts” had been carried out throughout the war, the court was able to definitely establish genocidal intent in only one case, the Srebenica massacre: Serbia found guilty of failure to prevent and punish genocide, Sense Agency 26 Feb 2007, accessed 29 August 2007
- ^ Brian Harmon, John Drobnicki, Historical sources and the Auschwitz death toll estimates
- ^ Encyclopedia Americana
- ^ Jewish virtual library
- ^ Vladimir Dedijer – The Yugoslav Auschwitz and the Vatican Buffalo (NY) 1992 ISBN 978-0-87975-752-6
- ^ Peter Witte and Stephen Tyas, A New Document on the Deportation and Murder of Jews during “Einsatz Reinhardt” 1942, Holocaust and Genocide Studies, Vol. 15, No. 3, Winter 2001, ISBN 0-19-922506-0
- ^ Raul Hilberg, The Destruction of the European Jews, Yale University Press, 2003, revised hardcover edition, ISBN 0-300-09557-0
- ^ Yitzhak Arad, Belzec, Sobibor, Treblinka. The Operation Reinhard Death Camps, Indiana University Press, Bloomington and Indianapolis, 1987, NCR 0-253-34293-7
- ^ a b Stéphane Courtois (ed.), 1999: The Black Book of Communism: Crimes, Terror, Repression, Harvard University Press, ISBN 0-674-07608-7
- ^ a b Helen Fawkes Legacy of famine divides Ukraine BBC News 24 November 2006
- ^ The Great Irish Famine Approved by the New Jersey Commission on Holocaust Education on 10 September 1996, for inclusion in the Holocaust and Genocide Curriculum at the secondary level. Revision submitted 11/26/98.
- ^ National Geographic, July 2003, cited by White
- ^ This toll is only for the number of Japanese pilots killed in Kamikaze suicide missions. It does not include the number of enemy combatants killed by such missions, which is estimated to be around 4,000. Kamikaze pilots are estimated to have sunk or damaged beyond repair some 70 to 80 allied ships, representing about 80% of allied shipping losses in the final phase of the war in the Pacific (see Kamikaze).
- ^ Sakuntala Narasimhan, Sati: widow burning in India, quoted by Matthew White, “Selected Death Tolls for Wars, Massacres and Atrocities Before the 20th Century”, p.2 (July 2005), Historical Atlas of the 20th Century (self-published, 1998-2005).
- Bloodiest Battles of the 20th Century
- Death Tolls for Battles of the 16th, 17th, 18th & 19th Centuries
- Wars of the 20th Century
- The world’s worst massacres Whole Earth Review
- War Disaster and Genocide
- Killers of the 20th Century
- Soviet Prisoners of War: Forgotten Nazi Victims of World War II
- Top 100 aviation disasters on AirDisaster.com