Rich Fleetwood on Survival & Preparedness – Founded/Established 1997
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Nuclear War

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I'm inspired to share this very detailed infographic today for two reasons. The first is a book I just finished this week called "One Second After",  a contemporary view of what our daily life would be like, should an attack by our worst foes and enemies procure, launch and light off high yield nuclear weapons specifically designed for maximized electromagnetic pulse . The second reason is my life experience. I went through 4 years of high school Army ROTC, enjoying the living hell out of it. In 1975, a drunk driver ended my military aspirations by trying to tear my right leg off with his pickup truck...I was on my motorcycle serving my paper route that afternoon, when he failed to yield the right of way. I recovered, mostly intact, but never forgot why I was in ROTC in the first place. My brother and sister both served in the Air Force, and even now, my brother is in the Sand Box as a contractor, after retiring from the AF after over 26 years in. Many of my uncles and in-laws served as well, and I have a good many friends who saw too much combat in the last 15 years.

We see all around us in our own nation the political battles of conservatives and liberals in never ending manipulation of our rule of law, systemic fraud and corruption at the highest levels of our administration and all three branches of our unique republic, and bloody tribal warfare in 150 countries right now. War on our soil, the good old USA, is just a matter of time. If you're a veteran, you have first hand knowledge of what awaits us if we don't save our nation. If you're not a veteran, you need to study your history....a LOT of history...because, yes, it does tend to repeat itself a lot on this planet. Tyranny is usually the goal, with the total enrichment of the few, at the cost and blood, sweat and tears of the many. With that said, take some time and examine this infographic, and the many unique details and history below. Art of War
Source: OnlineMilitaryEducation.org

The Art of War

Maneuver Warfare Goal: Incapacitate decision-making by shock and disruption
Characteristics: Isolation and exploitation of enemy weaknesses through movement.
Quote: “The supreme art of war is to subdue the enemy without fighting.” Sun Tzu The Art of War Attrition Warfare
Goal: Achieve victory through killing of capturing enemy
Characteristics: All out matching of enemy, where enemy is strongest you send most strength.
Quote: “A Soldier will fight long and hard for a bit of colored ribbon.” Napoleon Bonaparte

The Art of Movement in War

< p>The Battle of Marathon; 490 B.C.
Greeks:
Commanders: Militiades/Callimachus/Arimnestus
Men: 8-10,000
9000 Hoplites/1000 Plataeans
Persians:
Commanders: Datis/Artaphernes
Men: 20-60,000
Description of soldiers:
Hoplites: Heavily armored, carried large circular shields, spears, known for moving in phalanxes.
Plataeans: Members of a small city south of Thebes who came in Athens hour of need before the Battle of Marathon. Occupied the left column. “Double Envelopment”
(1) Militiades reinforced wings, weakening center.
(2) As they ran across the plain, the Persians– surprised at the audacious, outnumbered Greeks– charged. (1) Greek center enacted a well-ordered retreat.
(2) Overextended Persians are beset from both sides with majority of Greek force. (1) Persians retreat, with Greeks slaying many and capturing 7 ships.
Casualties:
203 Greek
6,400 Battle of Zama 204 BC[4]
Romans:
Commanders: Scipio Africanus
Men: 34,000 infantry
3,000 cavalry
6,000 Numidian cavalry
Description of troops:
Numidian cavalry–compact horses with little armor. used in loose formations for lobbing javelins, harassing the enemy then escaping counterattacks.
Carthage
Commander: Hannibal
Men: 50,000 infantry
4,000 cavalry
80 elephants Organization:
Hannibal charges elephants. Scipio is ready with thin sections of lightly armored troops that can move, opening channels for the elephants to go through. Roman and Numidian cavalry flank, driving the mercenaries from the field.
Hannibal and Scipio advance centers. Scipio easily fights through recruits, but is stalled by veterans. Scipio’s cavalry return from behind Hannibal, breaking lines from both sides and driving the enemy from the field. The Battle of Blore Heath; War of the Roses; 1459[5]
Lancastrians:
Commanders: Baron Audley, Baron Dudley
Men: 8,000-14,000
Yorkists:
Commander: Earl ofSalisbury
3,000-5,000 men Organization:
Lancastrians deployed behind great hedge for ambush. Flags spotted over hedge. Yorkist deploy. They Set up on opposite sides of a stream in a deep embankment. Arrow fire in ineffectual.
Yorkists set up defensively with one flank against the woods, another against encircled wagon train. Yorkists feign defeat at their center. Baiting a charge by Lancastrian cavalry (probably not ordered). They resume places and slaughter them from the superior position uphill. Lancastrians reform and push with more men. More successfully cross the stream, where Baron Audley is killed. In anger the Lancastrians reform 4000 more troops and cross again. 500 Lancastrians desert to the Yorkists, seeing it as a lost cause. Casualties:
Lancastrians: 2,000
Yorkists: 1,000 Operation Jaywick: 1943[7]
Australian Z Special unit
Commander: Major Ivan Lyon
Men: 13 Commandos
Equipped with canoes, and with skin dyed to look like local Singaporan fisherman. September 19th: MV Krait, the deployment and escape boat drops off 3 teams of two on Padjang Island, south of Singapore. Krait heads on a 10 day loop to Borneo.
September 25th: The Canoe teams head to Subar island, 7 miles from their target.
September 26th: 3 teams of two paddle in collapsible canoes from Padjang Island into Singapore’s harbor. Place mines on 7 Japanese ships. Dump equipment. Return to basecamp.
October 2nd, 3rd: First team picked up after midnight, two others missed. Returned next night to pick up last two teams. Returned to Australia. Casualties:
Australians: 0
Japanese: 39,000 tons of cargo destroyed. Operation Phantom Fury[9][10]
Manuever Warfare allowed U.S./Iraqi forces to take an occupied Fallujah with 1/27 casualty to enemy death ration
Coalition Commanders:
U.S. Richard Natonski, James Mattis
U.K. James Cowan
Men: 10,500 U.S., 2,000 Iraq, 850 U.K.
Insurgents:
Commanders: Adbullah al-Janabi, Omar Hussein Hadid
Men: 4,000 Enable large civilian evacuation (70-90% left). This allows less inhibited movement, attacking.
Bomb the city for several weeks.
Advance with snipers behind, tanks and bulldozers in advance, and men clearing buildings. Insurgents meanwhile had tunnels leading back out of the city for supplies. While U.S. forces didn’t know what was ahead, and had to advance slowly, the insurgents were able to move fluidly, reinforcing weak positions.
Two main tactics:
1. Bisect city by controlling east to west highway. Take civic objectives (mayor’s office, mosques, commercial centers). Isolate threats on a 2. Block by block basis, surround and clear as seen necessary. Casualties:
U.S.: 38
Iraqi: 6
Insurgents: 1200; 1,500 captured. Such is the art of war
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Source: bangaloremirror.com
  • By: Sridhar Vivan
  • Posted on: Mar 26, 2014
Students’ doomsday plan wins at NASATheir 207-page blueprint on an alternative earth draws water and oxygen from the moon, 'invents' gravity and even provides for a viable economy
< p>A nuclear holocaust, the super bug ravishing humankind, a flashing neon orbit descending from the sky or an asteroid tearing the planet as we know it asunder; in one word — Armageddon. But what if mankind could prepare for Apocalypse? That was exactly the question posed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) in an open competition to schools up to 12th standard around the world. 

Students of Sri Chaitanya Techno School in the city have responded by drawing up detailed plans of a sort of Noah's Ark, a settlement in which man can live and thrive. The 207-page blueprint is so detailed and precise that NASA has judged it the second best project in the world. 

The students have named their colony 'Nea Zoi Space Settlement'. It does resemble a sci-fi movie and seemingly defies the realms of science, but the students insist that it is not mere fiction. From 'inventing' gravity to providing for man's basic needs to a thriving economy, transport and communication, the students have devised ways to deal with every situation. 

For food, the students have devised a plan to grow plants through a technique called aeroponics (through supply of essential nutrition to the plants at the right levels in the form of mist directly at their root) and plant hybridisation (for higher yields by production of new species of crops). 

What about oxygen and water? The students have proposed oxygen generation through various processes like using by-products of the lunar mining industry to generate oxygen to algae culture. The water would be sourced through raw materials mined from the moon by extracting hydrogen and oxygen molecules. 

Nea Zoi, spread over more than 119 crore sq mts, will rest on a base made of carbon fibre and will support a population of 15 crore . The colony will be located at L4 and L5 (points that lie on the orbit of the earth around the sun which when joined with the point of the sun with a line, would make an angle measuring 60 degrees with the radius of the earth from the sun. These points lie on vertically opposite quadrants of the circle). They are the two most stable orbits. 

"Since a straight line can be drawn from the earth and the settlement, communications would be easier even with the presence of gravitational lensing," said Aayush Basavesh, who worked on the project and who has completed his Std X. Jyothi Kishore, a Std X student, revealed it would take 33 years to build. "It is economically feasible as it saves huge wealth that could be used to construct other space facilities." 

Dr BS Rao, founder chairman of Sri Chaitanya Educational Institutions, said a group of 55 students from their institutions will participate in the International Space Development Conference 2014 in Los Angeles from May 14 to 18 where they will exhibit and demonstrate a model of the project. Read the rest of this article and find other worthy stories by visiting bangaloremirror.com Fair Use Statement
The content of this post/pages/video may contain copyrighted ( © ) material, the use of which has not always been specifically authorized by the copyright owner. Such material is made available to advance understanding of ecological, political, human rights, economic, democratic, freedom, liberty, scientific, moral, ethical, and social justice issues, etc. It is believed that this constitutes a 'fair use' of any such copyrighted material as provided for in section 107 of the US Copyright Law. In accordance with Title 17 U.S.C. Section 107, this material is distributed without profit to those who have expressed a prior general interest in receiving similar information for research and educational purposes. For more information go to: cornell.edu If you wish to use copyrighted material from this site for purposes of your own that go beyond ‘fair use’, you must obtain permission from the copyright owner. If you are a copyright owner who would like your material removed or credited, please contact us at the CONTACT link above.
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Source: survivalistprepper.net
  • By: Lisa
  • Posted on: March 18 2014
With all of news that is being projected, either via the mass media propaganda machine, as well as other ‘alternative’ (or as I prefer to think of them as real reports sharing real news) you don’t have to dig very far to find some news on the situation that is currently playing out in the Ukraine, or aka, the former Ukraine, which was once a part of the former soviet union, which it may soon be a part of it again, or…..who knows. But with the masses of troops that are reportedly mobilizing and moving to this area is a little alarming, and concerning to me. No matter if I am considered a conspiracy theorist or nut job, learning more about what is going on across the world has started my thinking of what if. What if this problem escalated? I have no doubt that someday a nuclear weapon will land on U.S. Soil
What will that mean for not only my own family, but the billions of others? I know there isn’t a lot I can do to help others who for whatever reason refuse to see what is happening, and continue to go about their daily routine, play on the internet, and find out what their friends are doing on Facebook, all the while digging their heads deeper in the sand and pretending that if they don’t see it, it doesn’t exist. And even if they do see it, if they are told by their “leaders” that it doesn’t exist, then it doesn’t.
So while I can’t help the masses of zombies that surround me every day, there are steps I can take now to help my family, and plan for the worst. Now I may be going out on a limb here, but when I think about Russia and The United States getting into a fist fight, conservative methods of fighting (war) are thrown out. After all, I am more of a ‘what-if’ type when it comes to preparing my family. If the conservative methods of warfare are thrown out, then nuclear or biological war could be a possibility. The biggest threats that come to mind right now are nuclear weapons and biological weapons. And yes, I may be thinking a little too much conspiracy theory, but I would rather be a little more educated in the subject and have nothing happen rather than rely on the chance that nothing will ever happen.

Eventualy Nuclear Weapons Will Fall on U.S Soil

Eventualy Nuclear Weapons Will Fall on U.S SoilLike many others, the first thing that comes to my mind is what if both countries get an itchy trigger finger and decide to launch a whole stockpile of nuclear weapons at each other? With all of the targets that each country has, this would be a horrible thing to experience. Let’s say you survive the initial firing of the weapons, then what? What do you do? And not only nuclear weapons, but also with nuclear accidents, like Fukushima, or more close to us, the recent nuclear reactor accident in New Mexico. There is a LOT of very good information on the internet that you can find easily, you can even see what a nuclear bomb would do if it landed in your area. I am not going to go into the massive amount of details here. (I’ll let the experts cover that!) But I have found some useful items I will be including in my EDC bag as well as in my home:

1. Potassium Iodide tablets

These are good to have in case of radioactive fallout. They are readily available (right now anyways) and will help to protect your thyroid gland, which is where components of radiation can be stored in your body. If you do not have access to these tablets, you can also ‘paint’ iodine on your body to protect yourself. Keep in mind though, if you have an allergy to iodine (or shellfish, because if you are allergic to shellfish, there is a good chance you are allergic to iodine) don’t do this! You could have an allergic reaction, and that could be bad as well.

2. N95 Mask

These are specialized gas masks that will help to give you some protection in case of nuclear fallout. These aren’t cheap, but they will be well worth having in case of a nuclear accident or disaster. They block out 95% of particles, and probably won’t protect you against gamma rays, but they will protect you against radio-active dust, which is what nuclear fallout is. For the best possible fit, you should be fit-tested to make sure you have the appropriate size mask for your face.

3. Rain Poncho, gloves and a stocking hat

This doesn’t have to be anything fancy, just something to cover all of your exposed skin. Put it on over your clothing, and pull the hood up, this will protect your skin from coming into contact with the radioactive dust, which can burn you. Cover as much of your skin as possible, and when you get home, take the poncho off outside, so you don’t being contaminants into your home. You just want to have as many layers as you can between your skin and the fallout.

4. Baby wipes, gallons of water, baby shampoo, and clean towels.

This may sound silly, but if you were away from home, and had to travel any distance in fallout, you want to get the crap off of you before you enter your home. For us, that means keeping these extra items close to the entrance of your home. We have a deck that has a covered area, and a horse trailer parked close that we can keep these items in a large garbage bag so if the time comes, we could easily take a quick shower outside before getting into the house. Again, you don’t want to bring contaminants into your home if you can help it. It isn’t going to get 100% of the nuclear fallout off, but even if you were able to get of 90% of the dust, you would be keeping your inside a little less radioactive. Use the baby wipes and baby shampoo like soap and shampoo all in one. The baby wipes are easily disposed of in the trash bag that you were storing everything. Take another trash bag for your dirty clothes, and get them to the wash as soon as you can. It will be a cold shower with water that has been sitting outside, but hopefully you will only have to take it once, and then be in your home.

5. Heavy sheeting plastic, high filtered furnace filters and duct tape

This plastic is relatively cheap at your home improvement store. We actually had gotten some as amoisture barrier when putting a shower in. The plastic is thick, and black. I believe it was around $26.00 for a huge amount of it. You can use this to keep as much dust out as possible. Cover all of your windows, and any doors that you will not be using. In a really bad situation, you can seal off each room while you are getting yourself to the lowest part of your home, hopefully a basement, which will offer you the most protection, unless you are lucky enough to have a storm cellar or fallout shelter where you live. This will not block the gamma rays from getting through, but if you are far enough away from the blast or accident, everything you can do to seal your home, the better. It’s also important to note, don’t plan on running your air conditioner, or anything that allows outside air in, which is probably your furnace as well. If you have no choice, have the most powerful furnace filters you can buy, and also have extra filters that you can cut apart and build mini-filters for all of the air ducts where the air is pushed into your home.

6. Bottled Water and water filter system

In a nuclear event, you need to consider all sources of water above ground as contaminated. This includes water from municipalities. In many areas, the water that is pumped into our homes is stored in reservoirs and above ground. Have enough water to sustain your family, and pets for at least two weeks, hopefully longer, and remember, you can never have enough water. If you have to use your tap water, make sure you have a heavy duty filtration system in place before you use the water for drinking, cooking and even bathing. But consider your pets as well, you need to make sure you have enough water for them. If your family includes large animals, make sure you have a plan for how they will drink as well.

7. Bringing outside pets in

This is an area I have really thought about a lot. Although they aren’t food animals, or work animals, my horses are a part of my family, and I need to plan on their safety and well-being too. So for our family, that means turning our garage into a temporary barn if something catastrophic happens. We have to make sure the garage is sealed as well as possible, and have a safe place for our chickens, horses, and outside dogs. I’m sorry, but the mice can fend for themselves. (As they usually do!) My husband may not be crazy about the idea of opening the garage and seeing two horses, and a bunch of chickens, but they are our family too, and we need to plan accordingly for them as well. This also means having enough hay, grain, and feed stored appropriately in case we have to use it for an extended period of time. Grain in galvanized cans, and hay inside protected, as well as covered by a tarp. Again, it won’t keep out the gamma radiation, but it will protect the feed from radioactive dust.

8. Spiderwort Plants

This may seem like an odd addition, but these plants are actually Mother Nature’s radiation detectors. I have read that these pretty little plants with purple flowers are hardy, and if exposed to heavy amounts of radiation, the purple flowers will turn pink. They may not be a Geiger counter, but they will add some prettiness to the yard, a pollen producer for the bees, and possibly a detector of radiation. And, with a price of $2.00 for 50 seeds, it beats the price of a Geiger counter for me and my family. They can tolerate zones 4-9 for growing outside, and who knows, if you have a really good green thumb, you may be able to get them to grow year round inside as well.

9. Diverse Food Pantry

This is the same for no matter what you are preparing for. But in a nuclear fallout situation, it may be a long time before you are able to run out to the store and pick up something for dinner. The more diverse and larger your food storage is, the happier your family will be, and not get bored with the same meals over and over, but more importantly, you will have the calories your body needs to do more manual labor. Let’s face it, most of us don’t work 8 to 10 hours a day doing hard labor intensive jobs, like farming. Some people do, like farmers, or construction workers, but most Americans are not used to doing things for themselves. And in a bad situation, you will have to do a lot of the work for yourself. And it will be easier to do if your body has the calories to do it. The more food you have stored, the better off you and your family will be. So start small, and build on it. You will be utterly amazed at the amount of food you will be able to acquire in a relatively short amount of time. So stop planning, and just do it. Every time you go to the store, get extra. Keep doing it, and soon you will have to be planning a larger pantry. Just remember to rotate your stock, and eat what you store. I know every single preparedness website touches on this topic, and for good reason, food storage is very important!

10. Home Security

Just as in every SHTF scenario, the security of your home is very important. After all, you have worked very hard to get prepared, and ready to face the coming challenges. Don’t let your home security fall short. Make sure you have taken all necessary precautions to keep your family and your preps safe. Think outside of the box when it comes to security. Don’t advertise what you have, and don’t keep all your preps in one place. In the case of a nuclear incident, having caches stored underground will keep them safe, and keep them out of sight of your neighbors, or those who may be looking for supplies. Keep things hidden in plain sight. This is usually the safest way to store your preps. Make false compartments in your walls, or even in your couches. What about the unused space of an attic or crawlspace? You will surprise yourself with the hiding places you will be able to find if you just spend a little time thinking about it. A fun way to think about hiding your preps is to think as if you are playing hide and seek. Remember, some of the best hiding places are right in front of those who are looking for it.

Good Enough is Never Good Enough

< p>When it comes time to think about planning for a nuclear type disaster, I don’t think you can ever be too prepared. To me, these are just a few things that stood out, so I wanted to share them with you. But again, these things work well for me, they may not work as well for you. This is the challenge of prepping, it is subjective, and for each person, it will be different. And that’s ok, the important thing to remember is to just do it! Take a few minutes out of your day, every day and dedicate a small bit of time to becoming more prepared. It’s never too late to start preparing. So don’t get overwhelmed, just do it. Your family will be grateful that you dedicated the time, and you will give yourself a little peace of mind for every new skill you learn, and as your preps increase, so will your mind, and level of satisfaction that you can do this! Read the rest of this article and find other worthy stories by visiting survivalistprepper.net Fair Use Statement
The content of this post/pages/video may contain copyrighted ( © ) material, the use of which has not always been specifically authorized by the copyright owner. Such material is made available to advance understanding of ecological, political, human rights, economic, democratic, freedom, liberty, scientific, moral, ethical, and social justice issues, etc. It is believed that this constitutes a 'fair use' of any such copyrighted material as provided for in section 107 of the US Copyright Law. In accordance with Title 17 U.S.C. Section 107, this material is distributed without profit to those who have expressed a prior general interest in receiving similar information for research and educational purposes. For more information go to: cornell.edu If you wish to use copyrighted material from this site for purposes of your own that go beyond ‘fair use’, you must obtain permission from the copyright owner. If you are a copyright owner who would like your material removed or credited, please contact us at the CONTACT link above.
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View full lesson: http://ed.ted.com/lessons/surviving-a-nuclear-attack-irwin-redlener

The face of nuclear terror has changed since the Cold War, but disaster-medicine expert Irwin Redlener reminds us the threat is still real. He looks at some of history's farcical countermeasures and offers practical advice on how to survive an attack.

Talk by Irwin Redlener.

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Survival Bunkers – The Reality Of Life Underground

Source: survivalbased.com

  • By: Capt. William E. Simpson
  • Posted on: January 21, 2014

bunkers - tube

The concept of using a bunker for shelter during times of disaster is nothing new. However the technologies that affect bunkers have changed radically over the past 20 years!

For the purposes of temporary shelter, most basic underground bunkers will perform as hoped. And when it comes to shelter from a passing tornado, even some homemade bunkers are adequate for the few hours of shelter needed.

There are various types of underground bunkers that are commercially available and potentially affordable by an average American. In most cases these bunkers involve what is essentially a large steel culvert (10-foot diameter pipe) that has been modified to include some amenities, basic entrance and exit, and a very basic air filtration system. Such pre-made bunkers may cost in excess of $50,000.00 plus the costs to transport and bury the bunker in the desired location, with a total cost under $100K. In reality, there are few applications where the owners of such a bunker might receive a reasonable return on the investments made into such an underground bunker. The most logical utilization of such a bunker based upon statistical occurrence of natural disasters would be to escape tornadoes, which are of course short-term events. There are potentially a few other scenarios where a bunker might serve a statistically logical purpose, however the odds of such events are remote. And in any case, there are multiple reasons why the occupants of such bunkers will in most cases be unable to stay underground long-term for more than a couple weeks.

When considering the costs related to any bunker project, it certainly makes sense to have some sort of insurance policy in place to cover the bunker and its contents from loss due to theft or vandalism. However, given the locations of most bunkers, most insurance companies won’t offer any kind of coverage, so the capital investment that is made for the bunker and its contents (which might exceed the costs of the bunker) will not be insured.

bunkers - dumb

Entrance to a deep underground military bunker (‘DUMB’)

Of course if money is no object, you can purchase a sophisticated military-grade bunker costing millions of dollars, which will reliably serve the purposes related to long-term underground habitation during long-term disaster scenarios.

bunkers - mountain layout

These ‘bunkers’ are designed by experts and incorporate technologically advanced life support systems, as well as various military-grade security measures, also costing hundreds of thousands of dollars and more. They also incorporate sophisticated measures that help to prevent mental issues from developing during such long-term underground stays, where morale can be critically affected leading to serious social and security problems.

Too many people wrongly believe that you can survive long-term underground in the cheaper underground bunkers. As just one simple example; most people don’t realize that a family of four people will produce anywhere from 5-7 gallons of water from respiration and perspiration into their environment every 24 hours.

This moisture will condense on the walls and ceiling of any underground structure and will over time collect on the floor (lowest point in the bunker) of the bunker. After a week or so, the water that has condensed becomes foul with fungus, bacteria and viruses and the smell of this toxic liquid will permeate the environment. The equipment required to prevent this (just one of many problems) from happening is not only expensive, but requires a lot of energy to operate, continuously.

bunkers - 20ft underground tunnel

Satellite image showing an underground tunnel 20-feet deep

Another common misconception among survivalists and Preppers is that any bunker will be a secret from other people. I am sorry to break the news to these people but, OPSEC in this and many other matters has been dead for a long time. In regard to bunkers; there are hundreds of advanced satellites that are orbiting the earth which are looking-down all the time. For the past 20 years, some of these satellites have been scanning the ground looking for resources such as oil, water and mineral deposits, and in that mission, they collect and store mountains of data related to the properties of the ground below.

This complex data can and is being re-accessed using re-tooled search algorithms that can be designed to find and catalog any underground facilities, even as small as a car buried underground. And now with the advent of the newest super-computers, conducting a search of the archived date and cataloging (with Latitude & Longitude data) these search results are very simple and easy for any government organization. In fact, much of the satellite data can be purchased by private parties as well as foreign entities and the same searches can be undertaken. Just one aspect of this data (and new data being collected now) is being used to locate small underground tunnels at the U.S. borders where drugs, money and people are being smuggled in and out of the U.S.

Read more of this article and find other worthy stories here at survivalbased.com

*Fair Use Statement*
The content of this post/pages/video may contain copyrighted ( © ) material, the use of which has not always been specifically authorized by the copyright owner. Such material is made available to advance understanding of ecological, political, human rights, economic, democratic, freedom, liberty, scientific, moral, ethical, and social justice issues, etc. It is believed that this constitutes a 'fair use' of any such copyrighted material as provided for in section 107 of the US Copyright Law. In accordance with Title 17 U.S.C. Section 107, this material is distributed without profit to those who have expressed a prior general interest in receiving similar information for research and educational purposes. For more information go to: cornell.edu If you wish to use copyrighted material from this site for purposes of your own that go beyond ‘fair use’, you must obtain permission from the copyright owner. If you are a copyright owner who would like your material removed or credited, please contact us at the CONTACT link above.

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Source: space.com

  • By: Sheyna E. Gifford
  • Posted on: February 18, 2014 

Nearly everything we know about the radiation exposure on a trip to Mars we have learned in the past 200 days.

For much longer, we have known that space is a risky place to be, radiation being one of many reasons. We believed that once our explorers safely landed on the surface of Mars, the planet would provide shielding from the ravages of radiation. We didn’t how much, or how little, until very recently. Radiation and its variations impact not only the planning of human and robotic missions, but also the search for life taking place right now.

The first-ever radiation readings from the surface of another planet were published last month in the journal Science. The take-home lesson, as well as the getting-there lesson and the staying-there lesson, is this: don’t forget to pack your shielding. [Mars Radiation Threat to Astronauts Explained (Infographic)]

"Radiation is the one environmental characteristic that we don’t have a lot of experience with on Earth because we’re protected by our magnetosphere and relatively thick atmosphere. But it’s a daily fact of life on Mars," said Don Hassler, the lead author on the paper, "Mars’ Surface Radiation Environment Measured with the Mars Science Laboratory’s Curiosity Rover." 

Measuring radiation on Mars

On Earth, we often associate radiation exposure with fallout from catastrophes such as Chernobyl and Fukushima. We sometimes worry over CAT scans, chest X-rays or transcontinental flights. However, according to the Health Physics Society, the biggest source of radiation for most of us, by far, is inhaled radon.  The sky above our heads and the earth beneath our feet are typically the least of our worries.

In open space, human beings continuously contend with intense solar and cosmic background radiation. Solar energetic particles (SEPs) and galactic cosmic rays (GCRs) turn a trip to Mars into a six-month radiation shower.

The Mars rover Curiosity has allowed us to finally calculate an average dose over the 180-day journey. It is approximately 300 mSv, the equivalent of 24 CAT scans. In just getting to Mars, an explorer would be exposed to more than 15 times an annual radiation limit for a worker in a nuclear power plant.

Data from Curiosity also demonstrated that landing only partially solves the problem. Once on the Martian surface, cosmic radiation coming from the far side of the planet is blocked. This cuts down detected GCRs by half. The protection from strong solar particles, though, is shoddy and inconsistent. Substantial variations in SEPs occur as the meager Martian atmosphere is tussled by solar wind.

"The variability [in radiation levels] was much larger than expected," Hassler said. "[This creates] variability in weekly and monthly dose rates. There are also seasonal variations in radiation."

Study co-author Jennifer Eigenbrode, from the Goddard Institute of Space Studies, described how fluxes in radiation are critical in determining the possibility of life on the Red Planet.

"Radiation is probably the key parameter in determining how much alteration organics are experiencing in the rocks on the surface," Eigenbrode said.

Read the rest of this very interesting article and find other worthy stories at space.com

NOTE:  What this means to us, in the biggest picture of human survival, is that we need to create and develop technology that protects human beings from the deadly radiation that exists outside our own planet, if we are to eventually conquer long term and long distance space travel. Rich

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Source: americanpreppersnetwork.com 

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  • Posted on: February 13, 2014

These are frightening times. Of course, every prepper knows this – which is precisely why the individual in question is a prepper in the first place. However, one of the biggest reasons for the fear is the fact that the world is a place full of uncertainty.

This is a big problem for preppers. Why? Well, what are we going to prepare for? If I’ve prepared for an EMP or solar flare, and we ended up suffering a pandemic, then what good are my preps? Preparing for a bio attack and a chemical attack are two very different procedures. Indeed, preparedness knowledge and supplies will overlap from crisis to crisis. However, where it often matters most, some disasters are unique in the ways to prepare for them.

There is, though, one exception to this rule: preparing for nuclear conflict will actually keep you and your family safe from just about any other catastrophe – by the simple fact that such a conflict is pretty much the worst-case scenario.

Advantage #1: Underground & Out of Sight

Let’s face it, if you intend on surviving a nuclear conflict, it’s important you are able to hold up in a fallout shelter. This fallout shelter needs to have certain aspects already in place, which should still protect you from just about anything else.

First, your fallout shelter will need to be underground, sealed and very difficult to breach. In order for a fallout shelter to protect against radiation, you will need to have earth, cement, sand, etc. in place to protect against the harmful gamma radiation. For a more comprehensive explanation of how fallout shelters are properly constructed and what they do, check out this guide.

In a fallout shelter, you will also have protection against biological attacks and even pandemics. Fallout shelters are supposed to be relatively airtight to keep out radioactive particulates, which is why they need a ventilation pump. With this, you would have no problem keeping out a virus or even a chemical agent. In your fallout shelter, there’s not a whole lot that can get to you.

Your shelter should not be located in a heavily populated area, and should be well-stocked with supplies, ammunition, guns, a self-contained septic system and accommodations for sleeping and eating. This shelter is crucial during just about any type of disaster or conflict.

Advantage #2: Air Protection

You might need to resurface before the fallout and radiation has dissipated to find supplies or to perform other tasks. This means you will need strategies to keep yourself from getting any radioactive particulates into your body. You should have:

  • A high-quality gas mask (not military surplus, but commercial)
  • An airtight body suit system (DuPont makes Tyvek suits that should do just fine)
  • A decontamination shower for reentry into the fallout shelter
  • Radiation meters
  • Potassium Iodide
  • Good ol’ duct tape for sealing any holes or gaps between the suit and gloves, boots, mask, etc.

This list is only basic, and you should certainly do more research into how to comprehensively set up a ‘scout-kit’ to resurface while the fallout is still emitting dangerous and/or lethal doses of radiation. In addition, it’s important to know how many rads you have absorbed over what period of time (so you’ll need to bring just a cheap Casio watch along). The lethality of your radiation dose depends on how much you’ve absorbed over time. The Tyvek suit doesn’t protect against radiation, but it is designed to keep out airborne chemicals and viruses, which would keep radioactive dust particles from landing on your skin, getting in your eyes, etc.

The nice part about setting your preps up with this system is that you would still maintain your protection and ability to temporarily resurface in the event of a bio or chemical attack.

Read more of this article and find other worthy stories here at americanpreppersnetwork.com

*Fair Use Statement*
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